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Vocabulary and glossary to help people navigate the coffee world.

The first main species of coffee plant used commercially in the world, accounting for about 65% of the production. Its ideal climate to grow is the tropical-mountainous one, over 900 meters above sea level.
Intensity and quality are the two characteristics that are taken into consideration when the nose approaches the cup and the olfactory receptors come into contact with the aromas released by the drink.
The taste remaining in the mouth after swallowing a sip of coffee; this may have hints of chocolate, caramel, spiciness, fruitiness, smokiness, roastiness, and other flavours.
Coffee blends are mixtures of different coffee bean crops. They are made with coffee from around the world, regional blends or a mixture of the two, but an expert roaster will typically use beans from 2 to maximum 4 different locations.
The 'body' of an espresso is another way to describe how it feels in the mouth – consistent and heavy but ranging from light to full. Positive body descriptors are soft,syrupy, creamy, buttery/oily, silky; negative descriptors are dry, astringent.
The process of pouring hot water onto ground coffee beans, then allowing to brew. Water infuses the ground coffee, absorbs its chemical elements then passes through a filter originating coffee. There are many different brewing methods,
Coffee Belt
Name given to the band of subtropical regions stretched in about 50 countries around the world, mostly mountainous regions that lie at latitudes between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. 
Coffee Waves
The evolution of coffee over time, divided in 3 main phases:
- First wave: air-tight cans and pre-ground portion packs were introduced.
- Second wave: artisan-driven, focused on coffee origins and roasting styles.
- Third wave: the current 
Extraction is what defines the quality of the final result of the coffee in a cup, defining the thickness of the cream on the surface and giving the coffee its fine and persistent texture.
The transformation of the roasted coffee bean into a coarse to fine powder, allowing oils and flavours to be better extracted. It can take place either with a basic, blade type of grinder, or with a more performing burr one.
Pre infusion
Refers to the process of gently soaking the puck of ground coffee in the filter after the full desired brewing pressure has been applied. The goal is to ensure that water evenly penetrates the ground so the entire 
Roasting is the ‘cooking’ of the green coffee beans through the application of heat for a certain time and consists in 3 main phases: - Drying phase - Roasting phase - Cooling phase
Coffea Robusta is the best known and most popular coffee variety of the Coffea Canephora, accounting for about 35% of the world’s production, resistant to diseases and pests, it generally has a much higher caffeine content 
Single origin
The beans come from one place only, usually from a certain country, region or even the same farm or estate. Many argue not to destroy the essence of a single origin by mixing it with another, because each one is very different from one another.
The act of compacting ground coffee with a tamper to restrict the water flow, forcing coffee and water to interact at the right pressure. The tamping should be firm and even, aiming to compact the coffee perpendicular
There are four basic flavours used to describe coffee: bitter, sour, salty, and sweet, and the predominance of them depend on the composition of the blend. Sometimes, particularly for specialty coffees, umami flavour is also perceived.